T1 Heavy Tank

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T1 Heavy

Icon
USA Heavy Tank Tier V
Battle Tiers
123456789101112
Totals
Cost 435,000  Credits
Hit Points 600660 HP
Weight Limit 57.5/57.958.619/61.5 t
Crew
Commander
Gunner
Gunner
Driver
Radio Operator
Loader
Mobility
Engine Power 700960 hp
Speed Limit 35.4/10 km/h
Traverse 2025 deg/s
Power/Wt Ratio 12.1716.38 hp/t
Pivot NoNo
Armor
Hull Armor 83/44/41 mm
Turret Armor102/83/83102/83/83 mm
Armament
Damage 82.5-137.586.3-143.8 HP
Penetration 76-12696-160 mm
Rate of Fire
13.95100% crew: 14.55 rpm
+ Vents: 14.88 rpm
+ BiA : 15.21 rpm
+ Food: 15.87 rpm
16.67100% crew: 17.38 rpm
+ Vents: 17.77 rpm
+ BiA : 18.17 rpm
+ Food: 18.95 rpm
r/m
Accuracy
0.46100% crew: 0.44 m
+ Vents: 0.43 m
+ BiA : 0.42 m
+ Food: 0.4 m
0.43100% crew: 0.41 m
+ Vents: 0.4 m
+ BiA : 0.39 m
+ Food: 0.38 m
m
Aim time
2.3100% crew: 2.21 s
+ Vents: 2.16 s
+ BiA : 2.11 s
+ Food: 2.02 s
2.3100% crew: 2.21 s
+ Vents: 2.16 s
+ BiA : 2.11 s
+ Food: 2.02 s
s
Turret Traverse
31100% crew: 32.33 deg/s
+ Vents: 33.06 deg/s
+ BiA : 33.79 deg/s
+ Food: 35.25 deg/s
30100% crew: 31.29 deg/s
+ Vents: 31.99 deg/s
+ BiA : 32.7 deg/s
+ Food: 34.11 deg/s
deg/s
Gun Arc 360°
Elevation Arc -10°/+30°-10°/+30°
Ammo Capacity 7575 rounds
General
Chance of Fire 2020 %
View Range
320100% crew: 320 m
+ Vents: 326.86 m
+ BiA : 333.71 m
+ Food: 347.43 m
330100% crew: 330 m
+ Vents: 337.07 m
+ BiA : 344.14 m
+ Food: 358.29 m
m
Signal Range
395100% crew: 411.93 m
+ Vents: 421.24 m
+ BiA : 430.55 m
+ Food: 449.17 m
480100% crew: 500.57 m
+ Vents: 511.89 m
+ BiA : 523.2 m
+ Food: 545.83 m
m
Parent Contour-USA-M3 Grant.png
Child
Contour-USA-M6.png27,850 XP
Research
RT-USA-T1 Heavy Tank.jpg
Values are Stock - click for Top
USA-T1 hvy.png

The T1 Heavy Tank is an American tier 5 heavy tank.

Development of the tank started in the spring of 1940. In September 1940 and December 1941, prototypes underwent trials. The tank was never mass-produced. Later, it became a prototype for the M6.

Compared to its Soviet counterpart, the KV-1, most players do not consider the T1 a powerful heavy tank for its tier. Although it lacks the KV-1's extended armament options, the upgraded M1A1 cannon sports great penetration and rate of fire, taking the T1 Heavy's firepower up to par with the KV-1's 85mm. In addition, the T1 has a very powerful engine available as an upgrade, making the T1 a more mobile tank than its Soviet and British counterparts. It has good frontal armor and very thick turret armor. However, its long sides are very thinly protected, so keep your flanks hidden and expose only your front armor and turret to minimize incoming damage. Keep in mind that the T1 is best played as a medium tank with the speed of a heavy tank, and not as a real heavy like the KV-1.

Do be aware that the T1 Heavy Tank requires more skill to play than the KV-1. That said, in the hands of a good player adept at both medium tank and Hulldown (American Heavy) tactics, they will find this vehicle to be a very good tank. With the combination of good armor, good maneuverability, high DPM and high weight this tank will prove superior to tanks at its own tier and will prove a match to even higher tiered opponents.

The T1 Heavy Tank leads to the M6.


















Modules

Turret
TierNameArmorTraverse SpeedTraverse ArcView RangeXP CostPriceWeight
04IV T1D5 0102 102/83/83 mm
31100% crew: 32.33 deg/s
+ Vents: 33.06 deg/s
+ BiA : 33.79 deg/s
+ Food: 35.25 deg/s
31100% crew: 32.33 deg/s
+ Vents: 33.06 deg/s
+ BiA : 33.79 deg/s
+ Food: 35.25 deg/s
d/s
360°
320100% crew: 320 m
+ Vents: 326.86 m
+ BiA : 333.71 m
+ Food: 347.43 m
320100% crew: 320 m
+ Vents: 326.86 m
+ BiA : 333.71 m
+ Food: 347.43 m
m
0------ 4,3004,300 Credits 7,020 7,020 kg
Guns compatible with this Turret:
Gun
TierNameAmmoDamagePenetrationShell PriceRate of FireAccuracyAim TimeElevationXP CostPriceWeight
05V 3-inch Gun M7 75 110/110/175 HP 101/157/38 mm 56 Credits/7 Gold/56 Credits
13.95100% crew: 14.55 rpm
+ Vents: 14.88 rpm
+ BiA : 15.21 rpm
+ Food: 15.87 rpm
r/m
0.46100% crew: 0.44 m
+ Vents: 0.43 m
+ BiA : 0.42 m
+ Food: 0.4 m
m
2.3100% crew: 2.21 s
+ Vents: 2.16 s
+ BiA : 2.11 s
+ Food: 2.02 s
s
-10°/+30° --- 33,50033,500 Credits 1,450 1,450 kg

Turret
TierNameArmorTraverse SpeedTraverse ArcView RangeXP CostPriceWeight
05V T1D6 0102 102/83/83 mm
30100% crew: 31.29 deg/s
+ Vents: 31.99 deg/s
+ BiA : 32.7 deg/s
+ Food: 34.11 deg/s
30100% crew: 31.29 deg/s
+ Vents: 31.99 deg/s
+ BiA : 32.7 deg/s
+ Food: 34.11 deg/s
d/s
360°
330100% crew: 330 m
+ Vents: 337.07 m
+ BiA : 344.14 m
+ Food: 358.29 m
330100% crew: 330 m
+ Vents: 337.07 m
+ BiA : 344.14 m
+ Food: 358.29 m
m
2,6502,650 11,30011,300 Credits 8,020 8,020 kg
Guns compatible with this Turret:
Gun
TierNameAmmoDamagePenetrationShell PriceRate of FireAccuracyAim TimeElevationXP CostPriceWeight
05V 3-inch Gun M7 75 110/110/175 HP 101/157/38 mm 56 Credits/7 Gold/56 Credits
13.95100% crew: 14.55 rpm
+ Vents: 14.88 rpm
+ BiA : 15.21 rpm
+ Food: 15.87 rpm
r/m
0.46100% crew: 0.44 m
+ Vents: 0.43 m
+ BiA : 0.42 m
+ Food: 0.4 m
m
2.3100% crew: 2.21 s
+ Vents: 2.16 s
+ BiA : 2.11 s
+ Food: 2.02 s
s
-10°/+30° --- 33,50033,500 Credits 1,450 1,450 kg
06VI 76 mm Gun M1A1 75 115/110/185 HP 128/177/38 mm 96 Credits/7 Gold/68 Credits
16.67100% crew: 17.38 rpm
+ Vents: 17.77 rpm
+ BiA : 18.17 rpm
+ Food: 18.95 rpm
r/m
0.43100% crew: 0.41 m
+ Vents: 0.4 m
+ BiA : 0.39 m
+ Food: 0.38 m
m
2.3100% crew: 2.21 s
+ Vents: 2.16 s
+ BiA : 2.11 s
+ Food: 2.02 s
s
-10°/+30° 4,600 50,33050,330 Credits 1,567 1,567 kg

Engine
TierNamePowerFire ChanceTypeXP CostPriceWeight
05V Wright G200 M795C9GC1 0700 700 hp 020 20 % Gasoline --- 22,50022,500 Credits 0612 612 kg
06VI Wright G2X M781C9GC1 0825 825 hp 020 20 % Gasoline 5,300 30,00030,000 Credits 0612 612 kg
07VII Wright G200 M781C9GC1 0960 960 hp 020 20 % Gasoline 15,100 47,60047,600 Credits 0612 612 kg

Suspension
TierNameLoad LimitTraverse SpeedXP CostPriceWeight
04IV HVSS T31 57.8857.88 t 02020 d/s ------ 4,0504,050 Credits 10,600 10,600 kg
05V HVSS T35 61.561.5 t 02525 d/s 2,4502,450 9,6009,600 Credits 10,600 10,600 kg

Radio
TierNameRangeXP CostPriceWeight
06VI SCR 508
395100% crew: 411.93 m
+ Vents: 421.24 m
+ BiA : 430.55 m
+ Food: 449.17 m
395100% crew: 411.93 m
+ Vents: 421.24 m
+ BiA : 430.55 m
+ Food: 449.17 m
m
0--- --- 21,60021,600 Credits 0100 100 kg
07VII SCR 538
480100% crew: 500.57 m
+ Vents: 511.89 m
+ BiA : 523.2 m
+ Food: 545.83 m
480100% crew: 500.57 m
+ Vents: 511.89 m
+ BiA : 523.2 m
+ Food: 545.83 m
m
3,800 3,800 22,80022,800 Credits 0100 100 kg

Historical Info

T1E2 8.December.1941.
With the outbreak of World War II in Europe, interest was revived in the concept of a heavy tank and preliminary studies of such a vehicle began at Aberdeen in September 1939. On 20 May 1940, the Chief of Infantry recommended that a requirement be established for a heavy tank and that a program be undertaken to develop designs for such a vehicle with combat weights of 50 and 80 tons. In response to this request, item 15842 of the Ordnance Committee Minutes (OCM), dated 22 May 1940, recommended that a development project be initiated for a tank weighing about 50 tons.

The initial concept described in OCM 15842 was a multi-turreted vehicle. Two primary turrets, each armed with a low velocity T6 75mm gun, were to be equipped with power traverse to cover approximately 250 degrees. Two secondary turrets, also equipped with power traverse, were intended to cover a full 360 degrees. One secondary turret was to be armed with a 37mm gun and a .30 caliber machine gun in a combination mount while the other was to be fitted with a 20mm gun and a .30 caliber machine gun, also in a combination mount. In addition, the tank was to carry four .30 caliber machine guns in ball mounts. Two of these were to be located in diagonal plates at the rear corners of the hull and the remaining two were to be fitted in the slightly sloping front plate. The latter were to have electric firing mechanisms to permit their use by the driver as fixed sponson guns.

History

T1E1 19.september 1941.

The project was approved on 11 July 1940 and the proposed vehicle was designated as the heavy tank T1. However, the military characteristics soon were revised and a full scale wooden mock-up was constructed incorporating the changes. The multiple turrets were eliminated and the main armament was mounted in a single large turret with a 69 inch diameter ring. The new arrangement was outlined in OCM 16200, dated 24 October 1940, and the changes were approved on 22 November. The new single turret was armed with a modified version of the 3 inch T9 antiaircraft gun in a combination mount with a 37mm gun V15E1. The turret was traversed 360 degrees either manually or by the electric system developed by Westinghouse. At this time, power elevation also was specified for the combination mount with a gyro- stabilizer. Later, the power elevation feature was dropped, but the elevation stabilizer was retained. The turret crew arrangement differed from that in later medium and heavy tanks with the tank commander located on the left side of the 3 inch gun. A.30 caliber machine gun in a cupola identical to that on the medium tank M3 was provided for the tank commander. The gunner's station in the right front of the turret was equipped with a periscopic sight and a direct sight telescope. A .50 caliber machine gun in a rotor mount was located in the right rear of the turret roof. Operated by the loader, its elevation ranged from -5 to + 60 degrees for use against both air and ground targets. A pistol port with a protect scope was installed in the rear wall of the turret.

Crew

At the time that OCM 16200 was published, a crew of six or seven men was proposed for the new heavy tank. Later, this was specified as six, when the tank was standardized. They consisted of the commander, gunner, loader, ammunition passer, driver, and assistant driver. The latter three rode in the hull with the driver in the left front. Two .30 caliber machine guns were mounted in the front armor, one on each side of the hull. Fixed in traverse, these weapons had an elevation range of 15 degrees and were fired electrically by the driver. A door in the front plate could be opened to give the driver a wide field of view and a smaller direct vision port was located just below the door. A protect scope in the driver's door provided vision when the tank was under fire. Two .50 caliber machine guns in a flexible mount were installed in the right front hull for use by the assistant driver (bow gunner). These guns could be traversed 15 degrees to the left or right of center and elevated from -10 to +60 degrees. In the original design, the two .50 caliber machine guns were installed in the mount, one above the other with the top gun to the left of the lower weapon. Metal sights or rods were attached to the guns to permit aiming through the coupled indirect sighting device. Two escape hatches were provided, one in each top front corner of the hull. An additional escape hatch was located in the hull floor. Two pistol ports with protector scopes were installed with one in the front side wall of each sponson.

Engine & Transmission

T1-technical drawings
Because of the many problems expected during the development of the new vehicle, the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) was requested to form a committee to advise the Ordnance Department on the program. One major problem was the design of a satisfactory power train. The expected weight of 50 tons required an engine of approximately 1000 hp for adequate mobility. The SAE committee considered several engines and the chairman of the engine subcommittee recommended the Wright Cyclone air- cooled radial as the best choice. Other engines considered were the General Motors diesel and the Allison V-1710 aircraft power plant. However, the latter was eliminated because all manufacturing facilities were fully occupied meeting the requirements of the aircraft production program. Also, it was decided not to use the General Motors diesel at that time and the Wright G-200 was selected as the first choice power plant. Developing 960 gross horsepower at 2300 rpm, it weighed 1350 pounds dry. Unfortunately, no automotive transmission was available for such a high power level and the development of a suitable transmission became a critical part of the project.

Early in the program, the SAE subcommittee on transmissions considered several proposals. These included torque converters designed by the Schneider Hydraulic Corporation, the Twin Disc Clutch Company, and Borg Warner Corporation as well as a new Hydromantic transmission proposed by the Olds Mobile Division of General Motors. Designs for gas- electric drives also were submitted by the Electromotive Division of General Motors and the General Electric Company. However, the gas-electric drive was considered too heavy and it was estimated at that time to weigh about five tons more than the other systems. A conventional synchromesh transmission also was discussed, but it was not considered feasible in such a heavy tank and it would require the development of a clutch since none was available for this power level. After review of the various proposals, the committee voted to select the Hydromantic transmission, but also to study the torque converters as a possible alternate system.
In August 1940, a contract had been signed with the Baldwin Locomotive Works for the design and construction of a pilot heavy tank to be followed by the manufacture of 50 production models. As mentioned earlier, the new vehicle had been designated as the heavy tank T1 by OCM 15946 on II July 1940. This was the designation assigned to the vehicle for which the Hydromantic transmission was proposed. However, further studies by the General Electric Company indicated that a gas-electric drive could be developed that would not increase the weight of the tank by more than two tons. Since such a drive would have numerous advantages, it was recommended by OCM 16477 that an electric drive and steering mechanism be developed for installation in the pilot T1. When this equipment was installed, the vehicle was to be redesignated as the heavy tank T1E1.

T1E1 back
Work continued on a crash basis at the Baldwin Locomotive Works to complete the design of the new tank and to construct the pilot model. It was expected that the Hydramatic transmission would be available for installation in May 1941. However, numerous problems delayed delivery and in August, the pilot tank was assembled using the Twin Disc torque converter Model T-16001. OCM 16655 on 21 April 1941, had designated the vehicle with this transmission as the heavy tank T1E2. Preliminary testing of the pilot TIE2 began during August at Baldwin parallel with the preparation of plans for production. Modifications were required to minimize vapor lock and to improve the transmission and shifting mechanism. A particularly serious problem was the overheating and rapid wear of the steering brakes which subsequently required the development of a completely new brake lining. On the day following the attack at Pearl Harbor, the T1E2 pilot heavy tank was officially presented to the Ordnance Department at the Baldwin Locomotive Works with a demonstration alongside a production medium tank M3. Although it made an impressive show, many problems still required solutions, even though the new war situation called for production at the earliest possible date. For example, during the demonstration, the hydraulic system failed cutting off pressure for the power steering and gear shifting mechanisms. Thus for the last three miles of the run, only mechanical steering was available and it was not possible to get the transmission out of gear. Also, the pinion shaft in the traversing mechanism had been twisted off while rotating the turret.

Fallowing the demonstration, the tank was torn down and numerous changes were made as a result of the initial tests. The four torque converter radiators were combined into two units and the two engine oil cooling radiators were combined into a single unit greatly simplifying the plumbing in the engine compartment. The exhaust manifold was moved from the front to the rear of the Wright G-200 engine and mufflers of a new type were installed. These were located inside the engine compartment and exhausted into the slip stream of the engine cooling fan. The rear end of the hull was rebuilt to simulate the proposed production configuration.

Armament

T1E1 90mm
The T1 was designed parallel with the medium tank M3 and shared many early design features with that vehicle such as the fixed machine guns for use by the driver and the cupola with a .30 caliber machine gun for the lank commander. Troop testing, combined with the British battle experience, resulted in the elimination or modification of many of these items and these changes were reflected in the late production M3 and early M4 medium tanks. Similar changes were applied to the production version of the heavy tank. It was recommended that both of the driver's fixed machine guns be deleted. However, the gun on the right side was retained and only the left machine gun was removed and its port covered by a steel plug. Although it was considered desirable to redesign the front hull eliminating the door in front of the driver, such a change was rejected because of delays in production and the modifications were limited to reducing the size of the door and the installation of periscopes for the driver and bow gunner. At first, each had one, but the final design provided two periscopes for the driver and one for the bow gunner. In addition, the driver had a direct vision port in-stalled in the smaller front hull door. At this time, the bow mount for the twin .50 caliber machine guns was redesigned so that the two guns were side by side on the same level.

The production turret replaced the cupola for the tank commander with a flat double door hatch as on the medium tank M4. The rotating ring on this hatch was fitted with either a .30 caliber or .50 caliber antiaircraft machine gun, depending upon the Armored Force policy at the time. The rotor mounted .50 caliber machine gun in the rear of the pilot tank turret was eliminated. The pistol port in the rear turret wall was retained, but it was shifted toward the right side.

Models

With the United States at war, the pressure increased to get the new heavy lank into production. Following the precedent set with the medium tank M3, it was decided to release the T1E2 for production prior to the completion of the test program. Such an early release was expected to produce tanks undesirable features. Any necessary changes resulting from the test program could be introduced later without severely disrupting the production program. Such a policy was already producing M3 medium tanks to meet the critical needs of the British in addition to the American training program. To meet the expected quantity requirements, it was considered necessary to use welded as well as cast hulls and the combination of the General Motors diesel engine and the Hydramatic transmission was proposed as an alternate power train.
On 14February 1942, OCM 17812 sorted out the designations for the different versions of the heavy tank. These were as follow:

  1. Heavy tank T1 - Cast hull. Wright G-200 engine. Hydramatic transmission
  2. Heavy tank T1KI - Cast hull, Wright G-200 engine, GE electric drive
  3. Heavy tank T1E2 - Cast hull, Wright G-200 engine, Twin Disc torque converter
  4. Heavy tank T1IE3 - Welded hull, Wright G-200 engine, Twin Disc torque converter
  5. Heavy tank T1E4 - Welded hull, four CM 6-71 diesel engines, two Hydramatic tank transmissions
At this time, production orders had been placed for the T1E2 and the T1E3 and on 13 April 1942, Army recommended standardization of the two vehicles as the heavy tanks M6 and M6 A1 respectively. Standardization was approved on 26 May. Although funds had been allocated for 1084 heavy tanks, changing requirements of the Armored Force reduced the number authorized for procurement to 115.
T1E1 at Aberdeen
With the reduced requirements for heavy tanks and the standardization of the M6 and M6 A1, the development projects for the T1and T1E4 were cancelled on 11 June 1942. Thus the special tank Hydramatic transmission developed by General Motors for the T1 was never installed in a tank, although it was delivered to Aberdeen Proving Ground. Also, the heavy tank T1E4 with the four diesel engines did not progress beyond the design stage. However, the electric drive T1E1 pilot showed exceptionally good performance in tests at the Erie plant of the General Electric Company and General Barnes informally ordered 27 additional electric propulsion and control systems to be completed by the end of 1942. Standardization of the T1E1 as the heavy tank M6 A2 was proposed, but not approved, although the designation frequently appeared on drawings and in correspondence concerning the vehicle. Army on 10 August 1942 recommended that the T1E1 be classified as a limited procurement type to permit the manufacture of 115 tanks for extended service tests. Since the Services of Supply had directed in June that the procurement of heavy tanks be increased from 115 to 230 with the additional tanks allocated to International Aid, the end result was that all of the T1E1 tanks would be for use by the U.S. Army and the M6 and M6 A1 tanks would go to the Lend-Lease program. This was confirmed in a September report which showed that the heavy tank production would consist of 50 M6 s and 65 M6 A1ls for Britain and 115 T1E1s for the United States. Production was expected to start in October or November 1942. This schedule was not met and the opinion of the user was shifting against the heavy tank. The Commanding General of (he Armored Force, General Jacob Devers, wrote on 7 December 1942 to the Commanding General of the Army Ground Forces stating that "Due to its tremendous weight and limited tactical use, there is no requirement in the Armored Force for the heavy tank. The increase in the power of the armament of the heavy- tank does not compensate for the heavier armor". Recommending the cancellation of the heavy lank program, General Devers reflected the opinion of the Armored Force that it was preferable to use the available shipping for two 30-ton medium tanks rather than one 60-ton heavy tank. In view of the attitude of the using arm, the Services of Supply approved the termination of heavy tank production. The economical end point was determined to be at 40 vehicles.

The first production M6 was accepted at the Baldwin Locomotive Works in December 1942. A production pilot M6 A1 was completed by the Fisher Body Division of General Motors, but the production contract at Fisher was cancelled. All of the 40 production tanks were assembled at Baldwin. They consisted of 8 M6 s, 12 M6 Als, and 20 T1E 1s with the last tank, a T1E1, being delivered in February 1944.

With the T1E1I and T1E2 pilots and Fisher's production pilot M6A1, the overall total for the series was 43 tanks.


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