Leopard 1

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Leopard 1

Icon
Germany Medium Tank Tier X
Battle Tiers
123456789101112
Totals
Cost 6,100,000  Credits
Hit Points 1,9501,950 HP
Weight Limit 40/4240/42 t
Crew
Commander (Radio Operator)
Gunner
Driver
Loader
Mobility
Engine Power 830830 hp
Speed Limit 65 km/h
Traverse 5454 deg/s
Power/Wt Ratio 20.7520.75 hp/t
Pivot YesYes
Armor
Hull Armor 70/35/25 mm
Turret Armor52/60/6052/60/60 mm
Armament
Damage 293-488293-488 HP
Penetration 201-335201-335 mm
Rate of Fire
6.67100% crew: 6.96 rpm
+ Vents: 7.13 rpm
+ BiA : 7.27 rpm
+ Food: 7.58 rpm
6.67100% crew: 6.96 rpm
+ Vents: 7.13 rpm
+ BiA : 7.27 rpm
+ Food: 7.58 rpm
r/m
Accuracy
0.3100% crew: 0.29 m
+ Vents: 0.28 m
+ BiA : 0.28 m
+ Food: 0.26 m
0.3100% crew: 0.29 m
+ Vents: 0.28 m
+ BiA : 0.28 m
+ Food: 0.26 m
m
Aim time
1.9100% crew: 1.82 s
+ Vents: 1.78 s
+ BiA : 1.74 s
+ Food: 1.67 s
1.9100% crew: 1.82 s
+ Vents: 1.78 s
+ BiA : 1.74 s
+ Food: 1.67 s
s
Turret Traverse
36100% crew: 37.54 deg/s
+ Vents: 38.47 deg/s
+ BiA : 39.24 deg/s
+ Food: 40.94 deg/s
36100% crew: 37.54 deg/s
+ Vents: 38.47 deg/s
+ BiA : 39.24 deg/s
+ Food: 40.94 deg/s
deg/s
Gun Arc 360°
Elevation Arc -9°/+20°-9°/+20°
Ammo Capacity 6060 rounds
General
Chance of Fire 1010 %
View Range
410100% crew: 410 m
+ Vents: 418.79 m
+ BiA : 427.57 m
+ Food: 445.14 m
410100% crew: 410 m
+ Vents: 418.79 m
+ BiA : 427.57 m
+ Food: 445.14 m
m
Signal Range
750100% crew: 782.14 m
+ Vents: 801.43 m
+ BiA : 817.5 m
+ Food: 852.86 m
750100% crew: 782.14 m
+ Vents: 801.43 m
+ BiA : 817.5 m
+ Food: 852.86 m
m
Parent Contour-Germany-Leopard Prototype A.png
Child none
Research
RT-Germany-Leopard 1.jpg
Germany-Leopard1.png

The Leopard 1 is a German tier 10 Medium tank.

Main battle tank of the Federal Republic of Germany. Development was started in 1956. The first prototypes were built in 1965 at the Krauss-Maffei factory. The Leopard 1 was in service in more than 10 countries.

The Leopard 1 is the final advancement of medium tank tactics; capable of even firing on the move with little reticle bloom with good chances of landing a hit, speed rivaling that of the Bat Chatillon 25 t, excellent View Range and deadly gun with good depression and a decent rate of fire, this tank is meant to never miss a shot, it's so versatile that along with sniping it can also take on passive scouting, flanking, support, and on occasion brawling.

Of course, like all tanks, it has a downside: the armor is almost as weak as the Bat Chatillon 25 t, so even HE splashes will cripple it severely. Staying mobile is a key to this tank, while only staying still to shoot and then moving right away. Also, the ammunition Rack is stored in the front next to the driver, so it will get hit often if not careful.

The Leopard 1 marks the end of one of the German medium tank lines.


















Modules

Turret
TierNameArmorTraverse SpeedTraverse ArcView RangeXP CostPriceWeight
10X Leopard 1 0052 52/60/60 mm
36100% crew: 37.54 deg/s
+ Vents: 38.47 deg/s
+ BiA : 39.24 deg/s
+ Food: 40.94 deg/s
36100% crew: 37.54 deg/s
+ Vents: 38.47 deg/s
+ BiA : 39.24 deg/s
+ Food: 40.94 deg/s
d/s
360°
410100% crew: 410 m
+ Vents: 418.79 m
+ BiA : 427.57 m
+ Food: 445.14 m
410100% crew: 410 m
+ Vents: 418.79 m
+ BiA : 427.57 m
+ Food: 445.14 m
m
0------ 66,00066,000 Credits 7,718 7,718 kg
Guns compatible with this Turret:
Gun
TierNameAmmoDamagePenetrationShell PriceRate of FireAccuracyAim TimeElevationXP CostPriceWeight
10X 10,5 cm Bordkanone L7A3 60 390/390/480 HP 268/330/53 mm 1,200 Credits/12 Gold/880 Credits
6.67100% crew: 6.96 rpm
+ Vents: 7.13 rpm
+ BiA : 7.27 rpm
+ Food: 7.58 rpm
r/m
0.3100% crew: 0.29 m
+ Vents: 0.28 m
+ BiA : 0.28 m
+ Food: 0.26 m
m
1.9100% crew: 1.82 s
+ Vents: 1.78 s
+ BiA : 1.74 s
+ Food: 1.67 s
s
-9°/+20° --- 290,000290,000 Credits 1,282 1,282 kg

Engine
TierNamePowerFire ChanceTypeXP CostPriceWeight
10X MTU MB 838 CaM 500A 0830 830 hp 010 10 % Diesel --- 82,00082,000 Credits 1,700 1,700 kg

Suspension
TierNameLoad LimitTraverse SpeedXP CostPriceWeight
10X Leopard 1 004242 t 05454 d/s ------ 82,00082,000 Credits 10,000 10,000 kg

Radio
TierNameRangeXP CostPriceWeight
10X SEM 25A
750100% crew: 782.14 m
+ Vents: 801.43 m
+ BiA : 817.5 m
+ Food: 852.86 m
750100% crew: 782.14 m
+ Vents: 801.43 m
+ BiA : 817.5 m
+ Food: 852.86 m
m
0--- --- 55,00055,000 Credits 0050 50 kg

Historical Info

The Leopard is a main battle tank designed and produced in West Germany that first entered service in 1965. Developed in an era when HEAT warheads were thought to make conventional heavy armour of limited value, the Leopard focused on firepower in the form of the German-built version of the British L7 105-mm gun, and improved cross-country performance that was unmatched by other designs of the era.

The design started as a collaborative project between Germany and France in the 1950s, but the partnership ended and the final design was ordered by the Bundeswehr, production starting in 1965. In total 6,485 Leopard tanks have been built, of which 4,744 were battle tanks and 1741 were utility and anti-aircraft variants, not including eighty prototypes and pre-series vehicles. The Leopard quickly became a standard of European forces, and eventually served as the main battle tank in over a dozen countries worldwide. Since 1990, the Leopard 1 has gradually been relegated to secondary roles in most armies. In the German Army, the Leopard 1 MBTs have been phased out in 2003 while Leopard 1 derived vehicles are still widely used. The Leopard 2 MBTs have taken over the MBT role. Leopard hulls have been re-used in a wide variety of roles.

Development history

The Leopard project started in November 1956 in order to develop a modern tank, the Standard-Panzer, to replace the Bundeswehr's American-built M47 and M48 Patton tanks, which, though just delivered to West Germany's recently reconstituted army, were rapidly growing outdated. On 25 July 1957 the detailed specifications were released; the new design needed to weigh no more than thirty metric tons, have a power-to-weight ratio of thirty horsepower per ton, be able to withstand hits by 20 mm rapid-fire guns on every side as well as operate in a battlefield contaminated with chemical weapons or radioactive fallout, the then-standard baseline for combat with the Warsaw Pact. In addition the main armament had to consist of a 105 mm caliber weapon (the new British L7A3 105 mm gun was selected), carrying at least as many rounds as current US tank designs. Mobility was the priority while firepower came second; armour was seen as less essential, as it was believed no real protection against hollow charge weapons was possible anyway.

France was very interested in the design as its own AMX 50 project had just failed. In June 1957, West Germany and the French Fourth Republic signed an agreement to develop a common tank, designated in German Europa-Panzer. Three German (Arbeitsgruppe A, B and C) and one French design team would be included in a competition, with each team producing two prototypes each. In September, 1958 Italy joined the development program. Several prototypes were entered for testing in 1960. Among the prototypes were Porsche's Model 734 from team A, sporting a cast turret and that of team B (Rheinmetall) whose cast turret was somewhat higher. Team C from Borgward, designing a very futuristic tank, failed to have a prototype ready in time..

Even before these first prototypes were finished, it had (in 1959) been decided that a second phase with improved designs would be started: Team A had to build 26 phase II Prototypes for testing, team B six. Only two tanks of the required six would actually be constructed by team B. The Porsche Prototype II was eventually selected as the winner of the contest in 1963; this did not come as a surprise: it had already been decided in 1961 to build a preseries of fifty vehicles based on this design; production of these was started that very year. This "0-series" was modified with a new cast turret and several hull changes to raise the rear deck to provide more room in the engine compartment, and move some of the radiators to the upper sides of the hull. Before mass production of the standard version started it was also decided to add an optical range-finding system for better long-range gunnery, which required the turret to be somewhat taller, and added "bumps" on either side of the turret to mount the optics for triangulation. In 1963 France and Germany had decided to each build their own tank; Germany continued with the Leopard, while France built the similar AMX-30. Production was set up at Krauss-Maffei of Munich from early 1964 onward, with deliveries of the first batch between September, 1965 and July, 1966. The Leopard was soon being purchased from Germany by a number of NATO members and other allies including in chronological order Belgium (1968), the Netherlands (1969), Norway (1970), Italy (1971), Denmark (1976), Australia (1976), Canada (1978), Turkey (1980) and Greece (1981). Germany has a strict export policy for military equipment; Greece, Spain and Chile, while still dictatorships, purchased the French AMX-30.

Leopard 1A1

After the first batch was delivered the next three batches were the Leopard 1A1 model, which included a new gun stabilization system from Cadillac-Gage, allowing the tank to fire effectively on the move. The 1A1 also added the now-famous "skirts" along the sides to protect the upper tracks, and a new thermal jacket on the gun barrel to control heating. A less important change was to use rectangular rubber blocks fastened to the treads with a single pin instead of the earlier two-pin "shaped" versions. The rubber blocks could be easily replaced with metal X-shaped crampons for movement on ice and snow in the winter. Between 1974 and 1977 all of the machines in the first four batches were brought to the same Leopard 1A1A1 standard, and given additional turret armor developed by Blohm & Voss. A further upgrade in the 1980s added leftover image-intensifier night sights which were being handed down from the Leopard 2 as they were themselves upgraded. The PZB 200 image intensification system was mounted in a large box on the upper right of the gun, creating the Leopard 1A1A2. A further upgrade with SEM80/90 all-digital radios created the Leopard 1A1A3.

Leopard 1A2

The first 232 tanks of the fifth production batch was delivered as the Leopard 1A2 between 1972 and 1974. The A2 included a heavier and better armored turret, and therefore did not receive the B&V armor add-ons as did the earlier machines. They did receive the other upgrades however; the Leopard 1A2A1 received the PZB 200, the Leopard 1A2A2 received digital radios, and the Leopard 1A2A3 got both.


Leopard 1A3

The next 110 vehicles in the fifth batch were fitted with a new welded turret, which was equipped with a new armour consisting of two spaced steel plates with a plastic filling between them, and a wedge-shaped gun mantlet, creating the Leopard 1A3. Although the level of armor area density was equivalent to the A2's new welded version, the internal volume was increased by 1.2 m³ and the effective protection level was increased by half. The improved TRP 2A independent sight was installed for the commander. Upgrades were identical to the 1A2 models, the Leopard 1A3A1 with the night sights, Leopard 1A3A2 with the new radios, and the Leopard 1A3A3 with both.

Leopard 1A4

The Leopard 1A4 formed the sixth batch of 250 vehicles, delivery starting in 1974. The 1A4 was externally similar to the 1A3, but included a new computerized fire control system and the new EMES 12A1 sighting system to aim it. In addition the commander was provided with his own independent night sighting system, the PERI R12. The new equipment used up space and the ammunition load was reduced to 55 rounds, of which 42 were stored in the magazine to the left of the driver.

Leopard 1A5

In 1980 a research program was undertaken to study further improvements to the Leopard 1, providing it with a completely modern fire control system and fully effective night/bad-weather vision system. This was going to require even more room than the larger turret from the 1A3/1A4 models, so the decision was made to base the upgrades on the earlier models which were no longer competitive. The resulting Leopard 1A5 was based on 1225 vehicles of the Leopard 1A1A1 model. The turrets were again modified for the 1A5, with a larger section at the back, both in order to store all of the new equipment, as well as to move more of the ammunition into the rear turret, as opposed to the left side of the driver where it had traditionally been stored. The storage locker extended the turret almost to the rear of the tank when the gun was facing forward. The new turret was also able to mount the newer 120 mm gun from the Leopard 2 if desired, although this option has not been used. After trials the Krupp-Atlas Elektronik EMES 18 fire control system was selected in December 1983, developed from the EMES 15 used on the Leopard 2. The EMES 18 included two new sights on to the top of the turret, and no longer required the "bumps" as did the earlier optical systems. A crucial part of the upgrade was the introduction of more effective ammunition, including new APFSDS rounds. The Leopard tank could also be fitted with bolt-on lexan armour panels, which have increased the effectiveness of the armour. These "modified" tanks have proved themselves in the field. The first modified vehicle was delivered in early 1987. Since then almost all users of the Leopard 1 have also applied similar changes to their own vehicles, and in most ways the 1A5 can be considered the "standard" Leopard 1 today.

Leopard 1A6

A single 1A1A1 was also modified with additional armor on the turret and had the 120 mm gun as the Leopard 1A6. The project was ended in 1987, as the Leopard 2 was in widespread service at this point and the 1A5 offered a reasonable upgrade path for a fraction of the cost.


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